Mashantucket Pequot Museum Library and Archives Blog

Thursday, November 5, 2009

Shkook: Snake Stories in Pequot Country

The following text and images are taken from a vitrine display currently on exhibit directly outside the Research Library.

As Museum staff prepared for the summer 2009 exhibit “Pequot Lives in the Lost Century,” we began to identify key issues in Pequot history – resistance to encroachment, protection of sovereignty, military service, community ties, the urban experience, and life on the reservation. We were also on the lookout for good stories for future exhibits. As staff conducted new oral histories and reviewed older ones, a particular theme emerged. There were lots of Pequot stories about snakes. Inspired by the richness of the oral histories, the research team began to dig a little deeper. What we found was remarkable.

One of the first European accounts of Pequots (in 1626) involved a ritual offering at a snake den along the Connecticut River. During the following century, two Pequot sachems, Robin Casacinnamon I and II, both signed documents with snake “marks.” Local histories recount and exciting tale of rattlesnake extermination. In a passionate plea for the restoration of their lands, auctioned illegally in 1856, Pequots were concerned that they would “perish without bread or water in a den of red snakes [copperheads].”

By the early 20th century, one Pequot family (Martha Hoxie and her husband Napoleon Langevin) set up a platform at the bottom of Lantern Hill and conducted “snake dances” with copperheads, while serving ice cream and hotdogs. Other Pequots, including Earl Roy Colebut, earned an income by collecting copperheads for the Bronx Zoo as the zoological garden was expanding its poisonous snake collection and producing anti-venom. Martha “Aunt Matt” Langevin, who lived next to the copperhead den at Mashantucket, was well known for being able to shoot and kill these snakes from a considerable distance with her gun. Away from home some Pequots were known as “copperheads,” a reference to the snakes at Mashantucket and for others it was part of their personal identity including the late Clifford “Copperhead” Cyrus Sebastian, Sr. -- Dr. Jason Mancini, Senior Researcher, MPMRC

Image credits: Top, Signatures of historic Pequot leaders, Cassassinamon I & II. Courtesy of MPMRC Archives & Special Collections. Bottom, Three men with snakes - From left: Napoleon Langevin, George Von Buehren, “Ben” Guebert at old Warren House near Warren Pond and Rattlesnake Lodge Center Groton. Photograph May 30, 1915. Attributed to Cornelius Terry. Image courtesy of MPMRC Archives & Special Collections.

Friday, September 25, 2009

New Electronic Research Tool Available

The Libraries & Archives have added a new full-text digital resource to their collection of research tools. The American Indian Experience is a collection of electronic books and journals exploring the histories and contemporary cultures of the indigenous peoples of the United States. Designed, developed, and indexed under the guidance of Loriene Roy, the first Native American President of the American Library Association, and a team of American Indian librarians and scholars, The American Indian Experience offers access to an online library, featuring more than 150 volumes of scholarship and reference content, hundreds of primary documents, and thousands of images. Material in the database may be found by way of keyword searching or via Library of Congress subject headings. This resource is available on site through the public access computer workstations in both the Research and Children's Libraries.

Thursday, September 17, 2009

Archival Collection Features Material From 'Pequot Lives' Exhibit

The recently closed exhibit Pequot Lives in the Lost Century (May 16th – Sept. 12, 2009) focused on the lives of Mashantucket Pequot people during the roughly 100 year period leading to the Tribe’s rebirth in 1983. The exhibit drew upon several years worth of research performed here at the Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center. Harley Erickson, a member of the Research staff, has compiled 27 notebooks of Pequot Lives research materials that include:

  • Newspaper clippings and obituaries from 18th century through the present day
    Office of Indian Affairs records

  • Data on Pequot communities in Providence, New York and Los Angeles
    Historic maps and aerial photos

  • Images, articles leaflets, etc. representing tribal gatherings

  • Notes, photos, articles, etc. pertaining to Pequots in the armed services

  • and much more …

A finding aid for the collection is available in the Archives & Special Collections reading room. Some materials in this collection are restricted to Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Members.

Thursday, September 10, 2009

Question and answer: Narrowing your topic

Question: I am a senior history student at ______ University. My last research paper is due this semester and I would like to do it on the Native Americans after Manifest Destiny. I was wondering if you could guide me to some information on this topic. Thank you.

Answer: Thanks for contacting us with your question. The topic you propose is a little too broad, but I can give you some suggestions to narrow it down. If by “manifest destiny” you mean 19th century U.S. expansion, then it seems you want to explore Native American history 20th century and beyond? Some suggestions: narrow it to a specific tribe or geographic area (such as Pacific Northwest, Great Plains, etc.). You could also, or in addition, focus on specific sub-topics such as

-Indian urbanization
-Indian activism and resistance movements
-Land tenure
-Native American’s involvement in the US military
-U.S. government’s American Indian policy

Try exploring our collection through the online catalog:
Do some keyword searching there and see what you come up with. Our collection has over 50,000 titles on Native American history and culture, so it is a good representation of what has been published. We do not lend or participate in interlibrary loan, but you should be able to get most of what we have through your university’s library system.

Feel free to ask if you need further assistance.


Joseph Frawley
Reference / Info Tech Librarian
Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center

Friday, July 17, 2009

Tarzan Brown Reading Circle

Our thanks go out to Paulla Dove Jennings and all who participated in our most recent Reading Circle where we discussed the biography of Narragansett marathoner Ellison "Tarzan" Brown. Ms. Jennings' personal insights into the Tarzan Brown story balanced out what was agreed to be a well documented but slightly impersonal account of the athlete. In the course of the discussion, it became clear that the research in Michael Ward's biography would make a great springboard for another author to build upon, perhaps focusing more on Brown's personal, family, and cultural background. Thanks again for making this event a success.

Thursday, June 25, 2009

New Archival Collection: Foxwoods Creative Arts

Archives & Special Collections has recently received a large collection of video and image materials of Tribal events documenting the period from 1993 - 2007. The collection, created by former MPTN Creative Arts department, is comprised of approximately 2,350 video tapes and 1.6 terabytes of digital materials that are considered important in documenting the history of MPTN.

Highlights of the collection include:
  • Meet The Tribe - a series of brief interviews with Mashantucket Pequot Tribal members created for WIN-TV, the Foxwoods television network
  • Schemitzun footage from 1993 to 2007
  • Groundbreaking and construction footage of Foxwoods Resort Casino and the Mashantucket Pequot Museum
  • Language materials such as Pequot language classes and footage of the Revitalizing Algonquian Languages Conferences
  • The Lake of Isles Archaeology Project

A finding aid with a complete listing of the tapes in the collection is available in the Archives & Special Collections reading room. Certain materials may be restricted.

Phone: 860-396-7020
Email: archive [at]

Tribal Council at the groundbreaking for MGM Grand on November 15, 2005
from Creative Arts Collection

Saturday, June 6, 2009

Frequently Confused Tribal Designations

Image: distribution of Algonquian languages,
Source: Wikipedia commons
Algonquian (Algonkian) Vs. Algonquin (Algonkin)

The term Algonquian (pronounced al-GON-kee-in) refers to a language family- that is a group of related languages- spoken from Northeastern North America to the Rocky Mountains. Peoples speaking one of these Algonquian languages are sometimes referred to as Algonquian Indians, which is a broader term than their specific tribal name, such as Mi’kmaq, Ojibwa, Wampanoag, etc. This broader term, Algonquian Indians, is often subdivided geographically, as in Eastern Algonquian and Central Algonquian, each of which includes many different tribes. The Pequot, for example, are considered an Eastern Algonquian tribe.

The term for the language family was derived from the name of a specific tribal people, the Algonquin. According to Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes, 3rd Ed. (Carl Waldman, Editor. New York: Facts on File, 2006), the Algonquin currently consist of nine bands with reserve lands in Quebec and Ontario, with the Abitibi as a subtribe.

Both are sometimes spelled with a ‘k’, instead of ‘qu’.

Mahican (Mohican) Vs. Mohegan

The tribal names Mahican (Mohican) and Mohegan are similarly confused. Each is a distinct tribe, though their histories share a relatively close geographic area.

The Mahican historically lived in what is now New York (northern Hudson Valley), and also in the areas of southern Vermont, western Massachusetts, and northwestern Connecticut. In the 18th Century, various Mahican bands relocated or merged with other Algonquian tribes. The Stockbridge-Munsee tribe of Wisconsin is the result of the merger of the Munsee band of Lenni Lenape and Stockbridge band of Mahican. They now use the spelling Mohican, with an ‘o’.

The Mohegan is a Connecticut tribe, culturally and historically related to the Pequot. Their present day reservation is in Uncasville, Connecticut where they operate Mohegan Sun Casino.

The fictional Mohican people, featured in James Fenimore Cooper’s 1826 novel The Last of the Mohicans, is a creation of the author, which draws on elements of both the tribes mentioned above.

Note: There is also a group calling themselves “Western Mohegan Tribe and Nation”, located in Greenfield Park, New York. Though they use the name Mohegan, they claim historical connection to the New York/Vermont Mahicans mentioned above. They were exposed as fraudulent in 2004 ( See New York Times article, June 3, 2004: )

Eastern Pequot Vs. Western Pequot

The history of the Pequot Tribe and their ultimate division into Eastern and Western factions has been well documented (see especially Campisi, Jack. “The Emergence of the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe”. In The Pequots of Southern New England: The Rise and Fall of an American Indian Nation, Hauptman and Wherry, eds. University of Oklahoma Press, 1990.) To summarize, after the Pequot War, the resulting Treaty of Hartford forbade the Pequot to remain as a tribe and divided its members among the tribes allied with the English, primarily the Mohegan and Narragansett. Over time, the Pequots violated the treaty and regrouped, then becoming generally divided into two bands, the Eastern Pequot near the Paucatuck River in Stonington, Connecticut, and the Western, or Mashantucket Pequot located themselves originally near the Thames River in New London, Conn.

The following passage, from The Pequots in Southern New England: The Fall and Rise of an American Indian Nation, edited by Laurence M. Hauptman and James D. Wherry, provides more detail:

"At the close of the Pequot War, the tribe faced annihilation, a majority of the tribe having been killed and the remainder enslaved. In disposing of the few survivors, the colonies sent some Pequots to the Narranganxetts, the Mohegans, and the Eastern Niantics. In addition, a few were sold into slavery and shipped to Bermuda, or given to local English settlers to work on their farms.

These arrangements did not last, partly because the English quickly realized that they had unwittingly strengthened their potential foes, and partly because the enslaved tribal members were unwilling to accept their condition. By the 1650s the two groups of Pequots under the control of the Narrangansett sachem Miantonomo and Uncas, sachem of the Mohegans, had achieved independence from their captors. Having freed themselves, the Pequots again presented a problem to the English: what was the colony of Connecticut going to do with them? Its answer was to establish four Indian towns supervised by two Pequot "governors". Under this arrangement Robin Cassacinamon, who headed the Western or Mashantucket Pequots, as they later were called, controlled Nameag and Nawpauge, while Caushawashett, also known as Wequash Cook and Harmon Garrett, leader of the Eastern Pequots controlled Pauguatuck and Weepauge."

Today the Mashantucket Pequot are a federally recognized tribe whose reservation is in Mashantucket (Ledyard) Conn. The Eastern (Paucatuck) Pequot are based in North Stonington, Conn.

Note: The Eastern Pequots split in early 1980s into two factions: Eastern Pequots and Paucatuck Eastern Pequots. The BIA recognized the groups as one in the same in a 2002 decision, but revoked federal recognition (along with the Schaghticoke) in 2005 following pressure from local interest groups. They now are united as one under the name Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation. See “Schaghticoke and Eastern Pequot Decisions Reversed” Indian Country Today, October 19, 2005.

Sources consulted

Hauptman, Laurence M. and James D. Wherry, eds. The Pequots in Southern New England: The Fall and Rise of an American Indian Nation. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1990.

Guilette, Mary E. American Indians in Connecticut, Past to Present. Connecticut Indian Affairs Council, 1979

Swann, Brain, ed. Algonquian Spirit : Contemporary Translations of the Algonquian Literatures of North America. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, c2005.

Waldman, Carl, ed. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York: Facts on File, 2006.

Trigger, Bruce G., ed. Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 15, Northeast. Washington : Smithsonian Institution, 1978.

Tuesday, May 26, 2009

Recent Research By MPMRC Staff

2008 and the 1st half of 2009 saw the publication of the following works by Mashantucket Pequot Museum research staff.

Handsman, Russell G. "Landscapes of Memory in Wampanoag Country, and the Monuments Upon Them." In Archaeologies of Placemaking: Monuments, Memories, and Engagement in Native North America, edited by Patricia E. Rubertone. Walnut Creek, Calif. : Left Coast Press, c2008.
Online catalog record

Mancini, Jason R. "Beyond Reservation: Indians, Maritime Labor, and Communities of Color from Eastern Long Island Sound, 1713-1861." In Gender, Race, Ethnicity, and Power in Maritime America: Papers from the Conference Held at Mystic Seaport, September 2006, edited by Glenn S. Gordinier. Mystic, Conn. : Mystic Seaport, c2008.
Online catalog record

McBride, Kevin. "Pequot Medicine Bundle: Bundles, Bears, and Bibles: Interpreting Seventeenth-Century Native 'Texts'." In Early Native Literacies in New England : a Documentary and Critical Anthology, edited by Kristina Bross and Hilary E. Wyss. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, c2008.
Online catalog record

McBride, Kevin and David Naumec. Technical Report : Battlefield of Mystic Fort Documentation Plan. Mashantucket, Conn. : Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center, 2009. Submitted to National Park Service American Battlefield Protection Program, March 1, 2009.
Online catalog record

Naumec, David J. "From Mashantucket to Appomattox: The Native American Veterans of Connecticut's Volunteer Regiments and the Union Navy" New England Quarterly, v.81:no.4 (Dec. 2008): 596-635

Naumec, David J. “Connecticut Indians in the War of Independence.” Connecticut History v.47:no.2 (Fall 2008): 181-218.

Wednesday, May 13, 2009

Listen Up: Online Audio

The following is a roundup of some of the interesting, and free, audio content currently available online that is relevant to the scope of our collections. For those just becoming familiar with online audio, a podcast is a series of audio programs in MP3 format that can be downloaded individually or subscribed to through a syndication feed (RSS). Streaming audio is audio content that you listen to on demand, usually directly through your web browser.

Historian David Naumec Discusses Connecticut Native American Military Involvment
Bill Fowler, Chair of New England Quarterly's Board of Directors, speaks with Mr. Naumec about his article, "From Mashantucket to Appomattox: The Native American Veterans of Connecticut's Volunteer Regiments and the Union Navy" in New England Quarterly, December 2008, Vol. 81, No. 4

Eastern Pequot Archaeology
Stephen Silliman (UMass) Discusses His Work with the Eastern Pequot Archaeological Field School on WFUMB, FM 91.9, Boston.

"Keeping The Native Nipmuc Language Alive"
Streaming audio. Feature story on NPR's All Things Considered, April 13, 2009. Part of a four-part series aired in conjunction with the PBS television series We Shall Remain.

Indigenous Politics: From Native New England and Beyond
Audio series by Dr. J. Kehaulani Kauanui, of Wesleyan University.
Includes discussions of regional interest, such as:
2-13-09 Crisis on the Schaghticoke Reservation
3-11-08 A Native American Affairs Commission in Connecticut?
2-26-08 Engaging Indigenous Critiques of Native New England History
2-19-08 Beyond Conquest: Rewriting Native Connecticut: Interview with Dr. Amy Den Ouden
10-16-07 Interview with Chief Richard Velky (Chief of the Schaghticoke Tribal Nation)

Native Studies Program at St. Thomas University, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada
Features discussions of academic topics regarding Canadian First Nations.

National Museum of the American Indian
Audio content regarding programming at the NMAI.

Indian Country Headline News Podcasts
A weekly audio podcast, produced by Indian County Today, providing a summary of national news items important to Native communities.

United States, Department of the Interior Podcast
Look for information related to the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Thursday, April 30, 2009

Researching Native Americans in the Military

Spring and Summer Museum programming highlights the new Mashantucket Gallery exhibit titled, Pequot Lives in the Lost Century (opening May 16), and further explores the theme of “Indians in Unexpected Places.” Both reveal the various important yet little known societal roles played by Native people during the years 1870-1970. Not least among these is service to the United States armed forces.

Subject headings
The Library of Congress has assigned a variety of different subject headings on this topic, depending on the focus of the work. Following is a list of essential subject headings to explore in our Online Catalog.

United States -- History -- Revolution, 1775-1783 -- Participation, Indian
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Participation, Indian
United States -- History -- War of 1812 -- Participation, Indian
Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975 -- Participation, Indian
World War, 1914-1918 -- Participation, Indian
World War, 1939-1945 -- Participation, Indian

Indian code talkers
Navajo code talkers
World War, 1939-1945 -- Cryptography

Indian scouts
Indian veterans

United States -- Armed Forces -- Indians
United States. Army -- Indian troops
United States. Marine Corps -- Indian troops

We have also prepared the following bibliographies as guides to our resources.
For a bibliography of Research Library materials (books, articles, videos), please see
Native Americans in Foreign and Domestic Wars

For a bibliography of archival materials from our Archives & Special Collections, please see Bibliography of Native Americans in the U.S. Military

Friday, March 27, 2009

We Shall Remain, Premieres April 2009 on PBS

The We Shall Remain series, produced by American Experience in association with Native American Public Telecommunications for WGBH Boston, will premiere on PBS April 13, 2009. Episode 1, "After the Mayflower" focuses on the relationships between Wampanoag people and English colonists during the first years of contact. In support of the series, WGBH has produced an Event Kit for Libraries containing many great ideas for related library and school programming, including Guidelines for Evaluating Media About Native Peoples. These guidelines were adapted from the Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center’s Evaluative Criteria for Books about Native Americans (2006), and the American Indian Library Association publication “I” Is For Inclusion: The Portrayal of Native Americans in Books for Young People (2007).

Download Guidelines for Evaluating Media About Native Peoples .

For a list of our resources related to the series, see
We Shall Remain Bibliography (Children's Library)
and We Shall Remain Bibliography (Research Library) .

Saturday, February 28, 2009

Environment, Ecology, Conservation: 10 Books On Green Topics From Our Collection

This update finds us eagerly awaiting the coming of Spring, and with it, the return of green leaves to the trees of Mashantucket. In that spirit, we present here a resource list on environmentally related topics from our Research Library collection.

Biodiversity and Native America / edited by Paul E. Minnis and Wayne J. Elisens. Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, c2000.

Endangered peoples : indigenous rights and the environment.
Niwot, CO : University Press of Colorado, c1994.

Forests in time : the environmental consequences of 1,000 years of change in New England / edited by David R. Foster and John D. Aber. New Haven, Conn. : Yale University Press, 2004.

How can one sell the air? : Chief Seattle’s vision / author, Chief Seattle ; editors, Eli Gifford, R. Michael Cook, and Warren Jefferson ; illustrations by Eleanor Dale Evans, Jerry Hutchens, and Warren Jefferson. Summertown, Tenn. : Native Voices, c2005.

Answering Chief Seattle / Albert Furtwangler. Seattle : University of Washington Press, c1997.

American Indian literature, environmental justice, and ecocriticism : the middle place / Joni Adamson. Tucson : University of Arizona Press, 2001.

Closing the circle : environmental justice in Indian country / James M. Grijalva. Durham, N.C. : Carolina Academic Press, c2008.

A comparison of the biblical and Native American views of the human relationship with nature / Kay Mooney Cox. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Graduate Theological Union, 1979.

Defending mother earth : Native American perspectives on environmental justice / edited by Jace Weaver. Maryknoll, N.Y. : Orbis Books, 1996.

Ecocide of Native America : environmental destruction of Indian lands and peoples / Donald A. Grinde, Bruce E. Johansen ; foreword by Howard Zinn. Sante Fe, N.M. : Clear Light, c1995.

Even more resources may be found by searching our Online Catalog. Some suggested keywords: "human ecology", "natural history", "biodiversity", "environmental protection".

Saturday, February 21, 2009

Online Genealogist - New England Historic Genealogical Society

Just discovered an online service from the New England Historic Genealogical Society that may be of interest to some of our patrons:

"Longtime NEHGS staff member David Allen Lambert is now available to offer you research guidance, orientation to online resources and library-based collections via email. He also will facilitate referrals to specific NEHGS staff experts and departments when required. This position will offer a new way to serve members and potential members of NEHGS. You are invited to submit research questions to David Allen Lambert at Please note that he will make every effort to reply to each message, but will respond on a first come, first-served basis. In some cases he may need to refer individuals to the NEHGS Research Service for more in-depth research services for a fee."

Thursday, February 19, 2009

Images from Special Collections now available on Flickr

As part of our continuing efforts to reach out to remote patrons and provide access to our materials, we have set up three preliminary Flickr galleries, which offer a glimpse into our Special Collections. If you are unfamiliar with Flickr, it is one of the largest image hosting websites, as well as an online community which encourages interaction among its users. So far, the we have made "friends" with New Bedford Whaling Museum, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Beinecke Library (Yale University) .

At the time of this blog post, digital images of select items from our Engravings, Early Maps, and Popular Culture collections are currently on view, with more to come in the future. Be sure to stop in again for updates. Or, you may subscribe to our Flickr page via RSS: Link to RSS feed

Wednesday, February 11, 2009

Vampires and Werewolves: Young Adult Novels by Native Authors

Are there any vampire books by Native authors? Yes, there are! Fans of the popular book and movie Twilight may also find these exciting stories by American Indians for YA* readers appealing:

The Night Wanderer: A Native Gothic Novel, written by Drew Hayden Taylor (Ojibway) was published in 2007 by Annick Press. It’s a compelling vampire story set on a First Nations community in Ontario where sixteen-year-old Tiffany is dealing with major mixed-up emotions about her exciting new boyfriend, her protective and strict father, and her absent, now pregnant, mother. It’s also about Pierre L’Errant-his 350 years as a vampire roaming the world until he gives into his strong longing to return to his Ojibway village. Well known for his play Toronto at Dreamer's Rock, Drew Hayden Taylor originally wrote this vampire story as a play and later expanded it into an excellent novel. You can read an interview with him about The Night Wanderer on Cynthia Leitich Smith’s blog at:

Cynthia Leitich Smith (Muscogee Creek), in addition to her excellent web site and blog, often writes about contemporary American Indian youth. However, Tantalize is very different from her well-known YA book, Rain is Not My Indian Name. A dark fantasy, Tantalize is about Quincie Morris, high school senior, restaurant owner, and vampire who loves a werewolf.

Smith’s latest book is Eternal. From the promotional materials on her web site, it sounds like a winner: “In alternating points of view, Miranda and Zachary navigate a cut-throat eternal aristocracy as they play out a dangerous and darkly hilarious love story for the ages. With diabolical wit, the author of Tantalize revisits a deliciously dark world where vampires vie with angels — and girls just want to have fangs.”

* What are YA books? They are books for young adults. Some YA books can be read and enjoyed by young teens in middle school while others appeal to high school and up readers-mostly due to their mature content.

Friday, January 30, 2009

Strength and Courage: Native American Cancer Survivor Stories

The Archives & Special Collections is pleased to present a new oral history collection: Strength and Courage: Native American Cancer Survivor Stories. With funding provided by the Lance Armstrong Foundation and the New England division of the American Cancer Society, Northeast Tribal Wellness & Cancer Prevention is working to document Native American experiences with cancer to provide helpful information to current and future generations. Transcripts of taped interviews with Native American cancer survivors are available to be viewed by the general public and researchers. Recordings and mementos are also being collected, though some of these materials may be restricted. This on-going project is currently focusing on members of the Mashantucket Pequot tribe. The long-term goal is to collect donations from Native American cancer survivors throughout the Northeast.

For more information contact the Archives & Special Collections.

Phone: (860) 396-7020
Email: archive [at]

Saturday, January 17, 2009

New Books - January 2009

Below we list some of the most notable titles from our recent acquisitions. Please follow the link to the catalog record for more information.

Attaquin, Helen Avis Alyce. A brief history of Gay Head, or ’Aquiniuh’. [S.l. : s.n.], c1970. Catalog record

Bross, Kristina and Hilary E. Wyss, eds. Early native literacies in New England : a documentary and critical anthology. Amherst : University of Massachusetts Press, c2008. Catalog record

McBride, Kevin, David Naumec and Rahiem Eleazer. American Battlefield Protection Program grant : battlefields of the Pequot War : presentations to landholders. Mashantucket, Conn. : Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center, 2008. Catalog record

Moondancer and Strong Woman. A cultural history of the Native peoples of southern New England : voices from past and present. Boulder, Colo. : Bèauu Press, c2006. Catalog record

Morrison, Michael A. and James Brewer Stewart. Race and the early republic : racial consciousness and nation-building in the early republic. Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield, [2002]. Catalog record

Prins, Harald E.L. and Bunny McBride. Asticou’s island domain : Wabanaki peoples at Mount Desert Island, 1500-2000 : Acadia National Park ethnographic overview and assessment. Boston, Mass. : Northeast Region Ethnography Program, National Park Service, 2007. Catalog record

Rubertone, Patricia E. Archaeologies of placemaking : monuments, memories, and engagement in native North America. Walnut Creek, Calif. : Left Coast Press, c2008. Catalog record

Tucker, Spencer C., ed. The encyclopedia of North American colonial conflicts to 1775 : a political, social, and military history. Santa Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO, c2008. Catalog record

Van Zandt, Cynthia J. Brothers among nations : the pursuit of intercultural alliances in early America, 1580-1660. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2008. Catalog record